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Article

  • Title

    Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

  • Authors

    Kovalenko Igor L.
    Kuprin Vitaliy P.

  • Subject

    CHEMISTRY. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

  • Year 2016
    Issue 1(48)
    UDC 661.185:662.2
    DOI 10.15276/opu.1.48.2016.13
    Pages 72-80
  • Abstract

    The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and Methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on "water / diesel fuel" border in the presence of 0.5 wt % of sorbitan monooleate mass of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension "surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel", the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of "spectral resonance" between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C). It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product using the method of IR-spectroscopy. The obtained amides possess good emulsifying ability both in dynamic and in static devices in different duties. According to spectral data, the possibility of specific adsorption of the received amides on ammonium nitrate nucleus is shown. This provides inhibition of emulsion crystallization processes.

  • Keywords

    surface-active substance, emulsifier, interphase activity, specific interaction, amide

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  • References

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